E-LEARNING, ONLINE EDUCATION AND OPEN EDUCATION: A CONTRIBUTION TO A THEORETICAL APPROACH
This article arises from the discussions carried out within the Observatory for Quality on Distance Education and e-Learning at Universidade Aberta (Portugal) and also from the participation in a brief program about "Massive Open Online Courses: Principles and Practices". This theoretical article aims to contribute to a conceptual description about online distance education territories. In this paper we explore different perspectives about e-Learning, Online Education and Virtual Open Education. Firstly, we address a diversity of perspectives about e-Learning and then we recommend a meaning to this construct. Secondly, we analyze different perspectives about Online Education. Thirdly, we propose some referents to describe Open Education in digital society and its most relevant current movements, such as Open Educational Resources (OER) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC). In what concerns to OER, it should be noted that the matrix of this movement goes beyond the access to the contents and the resources; at the contrary, it is linked to a new educational philosophy, new values founded on openness, ethics of participation and collaboration (Peters, 2008). As a part of the analysis about MOOCs, we highlight a new learning ecology, as well as we enhance the importance of reconceptualizing traditional concepts, such as enrollment, participation, attendance, students’ achievement, according to DeBoer, Ho, Stump e Breslow (2014). Finally, we reiterate the diversity of perspectives on Learning, Online Education and Open Education and we suggest that the research in Distance Education should be a central referent for the decrease of the currently existing entropy in face-to-face higher education institutions, in the appropriation process of key concepts of Online Distance Education.
E-learning; online education; online distance education; OER; MOOC.
Allen, E.; Seaman, J. (2014). Grade Change. Tracking Online Education in the United States. Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog Research Group, LLC. Recuperado de: http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/gradechange.pdf
Ally, M. (2008). Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning. In T. Anderson (Ed.), Theory and practice of online learning (15–44). Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press (2ª ed.)
Anderson, T.; Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, Vol 12, Nº 3 (2011). Recuperado de: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890/1663
Atkins, D.E., Brown, J.S. and Hammond, A.L. (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities. Report to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Recuperado de: http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/ReviewoftheOERMovement.pdf
Bates, T. (2011). OERs: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Recuperado de: http://www.tonybates.ca/2011/02/06/oers-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
Benson, A. (2002). Using online learning to meet workforce demand: A case study of stakeholder influence. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3(4), 443−452.
Benson, L., Elliot, D., Grant, M., Holschuh, D., Kim, B., Kim, H., et al. (2002). Usability and instructional design heuristics for e-Learning evaluation. World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Vol. 2002, No. 1 (2002), 1615–1621.
Breslow, L; Pritchard, D.; DeBoer, J.; Stump, G.; Ho, A.; Seaton, D. (2013). Studying Learning in the Worldwide Classroom: Research into edX’s First MOOC. Research & Practice in Assessment. Special Issue: MOOCs and Technology. RPA, vol.8, summer 2013, 13-25.
Conrad, D. (2002). Deep in the hearts of learners: Insights into the nature of online community. Journal of Distance Education, 17(1), 1−19.
Conrad, D. (2006). E-Learning and social change: An apparent contradiction. In In. M. Beaudoin (Ed.), Perspectives on higher education in the digital age (21−33). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
DeBoer, J.; Ho, A.; Stump, G.; Breslow, L. (2014). Changing ‘Course': Reconceptualizing Educational Variables for Massive Open Online Courses. Educational Researcher, vol. XX, 1-11. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X14523038.
DeBoer, J.; Seaton, D.; Stump, G.; Breslow, L. (2013).; Diversity in MOOC Students’ Backgrounds and Behaviors in Relationship to Performance in 6.002x. Recuperado de: https://tll.mit.edu/sites/default/files/library/LINC%20%2713.pdf
Deimann, M.; Farrow, R. (2013). Rethinking OER and their Use : Open Education as Bildung. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, vol. 14, nº3, July, 344-360. Recuperado de: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1370/2542
Downes, S. (2013). The Resurgence of Community in Online Learning. Recuperado de: http://halfanhour.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/mooc-resurgence-of-community-in-online.html
Garcia Aretio, L. (2015). MOOC: ¿tsunami, revolución o moda pasajera? Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distância, vol. 18, Nº1. Recuperado de: http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/ried/article/view/13812/12492
Garrison, D.R.; Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century: a framework for research and practice. NY: Routledge Falmer.
Gil-Jaurena, I (2013). Openness in higher education. Open Praxis, vol. 5 issue 1, January–March 2013, 3–5.
Hiltz, S. R.;Turoff, M. (2005). Education goes digital: The evolution of online learning and the revolution in higher education. Communications of the ACM, 48(10), 59−64, doi:10.1145/1089107.1089139
Lowenthal, P., Wilson, B. G., & Parrish, P. (2009). Context matters: A description and typology of the online learning landscape. Presented at the 2009 AECT International Convention, Louisville, KY.
McGreal, R.; Kinuthia, W.; Stewart Marshall, S. (eds.) (2013). Open Educational Resources: Innovation, Research and Practice. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University.
Moore, J.; Dickson-Deane, C.; Galyen, K. (2011). e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same? Internet and Higher Education 14 (2011), 129–135.
Oblinger, D.; Oblinger, J. (2006). Educationg the Net Generation. EDUCAUSE. Recuperado de: http://www.educause.edu/educatingthenetgen
Peter, S.; Deimann, M. (2013). On the role of openness in education: A historical reconstruction. Open Praxis, vol. 5 issue 1, January–March 2013, 7–14.
Peters, M. (2009. The History and Emergent Paradigm of Open Education. In M. Peters & R. Britez (eds). (2008), Open Education and Education for Openness (3-16). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Rao, S. (2011). Global e-Learning: A Phenomenological Study. Tese de doutoramento em Filosofia, Colorado State University.
Sangrà, A.; Vlachopoulos, D., Cabrera, N., Bravo, S. (2011). Hacia una definición inclusiva del e-learning. Barcelona-UOC: eLearn Center.
Sangrà, A.; Vlachopoulos, D.; Cabrera, N. (2012). Building an Inclusive Definition of E-Learning: An Approach to the Conceptual Framework. International Review of Open and Distance Learning, Vol 13 | Nº 2 Research Articles, April.
Shank, P., & Sitze, A. (2004). Making sense of online learning: A guide for beginners and the truly skeptical. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
Taylor, J. C. (2001). Fifth generation distance education. e-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (e-JIST), 4(1), 1-14.
UNESCO. What are Open Educational Resources (OERs)? Recuperado de: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/open-educational-resources/what-are-open-educational-resources-oers/
Wiley, D. (2010). OER 101: Theory and Practice. Recuperado de: http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/1725
Zawacki-Richter, O.; Anderson, T. (eds.) (2014). Online Distance Education. Towards a research agenda. Athabasca University: AU Press.